The Sunday Think: Does Food Drive Language?

Yes, it’s True.  I usually go through my “work day” with what passes as a “daily think.”

Normally, it’s something that no one else seems to have looked into, so I begin to ask a lot of questions.

For example, since I had a hernia operation 12-days ago, that set of contemplation got me on the track of minimizing healing time and a “personal protocol to test” was developed (shared on the Peoplenomics side) and we will see how good/better or worse/bad my healing is compared with my surgeon’s 20+ years of doing such surgeries.

That’s how we evolve things like personal discovery and “what works” in real-life.

Fast-forward to Saturday’s breakfast.

Three (small) meat and cheese tacos with plenty of sauce, a couple of scrambled eggs, and a glass of omega-3 enhanced whole milk.

As I was enjoying this fine repast, an odd though wandered-by.

“I wonder is there is a link between  language on the one hand, and the  foods including spicing that certain cultures habitually use.

As I munched away, it became my “Saturday Think.”  Not sure what Sunday’s will be, but you get the idea.

I began by hitting the government PubMed website and started to look up various food and medical outcomes.  Among my “finds” to fuel thinking for the day:

To summarize the question, then:  Does the locally available food source determine (or predispose) people’s otherwise “free-choicing” in the formative stages of tribal language development?

See here:  We know that (as in stuttering) there is evolving data supporting a specific pathological speech function.  But, is the linguistic link a two-way street?  If so, how might we postulate it?

Well, take something like stuttering.  While the paper concluded “The results demonstrated that copper and thiamine had no measurable effect on the amount of stuttering (self and formal assessments) but there was a moderate, significant correlation between mood state and fluency.” that’s not to rule-out other, lower-level and pernicious foods and food-groups. Oh, and additives and preservatives and…well, you’re tracking, right?

While in a short-term study, any such effects might not be apparent, what would the data be (for these and other food-factors & nutrients) if we were to run a multi-generational longitudinal study?  What might we find?

Where are the Smart People?

God knows, this will be controversial thinking (which doesn’t bother us, at all) but are there certain locales where people can emerge who are Super-Smart?

In my Big Saturday Think, I came up with a handful of people who were at the high end of the IQ (Bell, normal, semi-Gaussian) distribution of “smart people.”

My friend Ehor, who’s (going from memory) of distant Ukrainian decent, is one of the brightest minds I know.  That got me to thinking about what might be going on as “food factors” in the area from, oh, Germany eastwards to the Russian frontier?

In my professional life, I have worked with a ton of Ukrainian and other eastern European programmers.  OMG – no such brains were available online for projects in the US and no one in Asia could hold a candle to lines of quality code.

So I started to roll back through the memorydex:

  • Nikola Tesla was born in Croatia in 1856.
  • Albert Einstein in the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1879.
  • Louis Pasteur was born Dole, France in 1822.  Quite near the middle of the eastern border of France.
  • Madam Currie was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1867.

A further research question begins to form:  Was there something about the food sources that run in a broad brush from roughly eastern Ukraine across the farmlands of eastern and central Europe that somehow “fed” remarkable insights?  And then, to what extent were these insights the result of dietary factors which might have run through the region?  Was it the farm-made yogurt, for example, that might somehow activate a deeper visualization capacity of the cerebral cortex?

Onto the reading list go several papers including Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.

I then looked to American diets and pondered “inventive” locations:  Did they cluster?

  • Thomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, in 1847.
  • The Wright Brothers were born Millville Indiana  (Wilbur) and Dayton, Ohio (Orville).  (1867 and 1871 respectively).
  • Ben Franklin was born in Boston in 1706.
  • Alexander Graham Bell was born in Scotland 1847.

Ohio?  There are other clusters:  Tim Berners Lee and Charles Babbage, both critical to the Internet and computers, were born  in London.

On the other hand, we can’t be too quick to jump directly to location or nutrition conclusions, since one paper ( Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children ) found “In the present study, we found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents’ occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent. Hence, a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic potential.”

Family values breed…genius?

Which meant maybe the “big think” would need to examine parental factors in these areas.  Ah…more research!

And what about some of our favorite anomalous genius?  Edward Leedskalnin, who built the Coral Castle, for example, was born Latvia in 1887.  Again, in our broad brush region. Farmlands of Eastern Europe, a feedstock to Western greatness?

In no time at all, the Big Think was morphing into a Huge Think.  Yet, there seemed, at least intuitively,  to be something there:  People of great genius tend to have unique visualization powers.  So there must, logically, be “something there” that could be useful.

Here’s a paper ( Does traditional asian vegetables (ulam) consumption correlate with brain activity using fMRI? A study among aging adults from low-income households. ) that studied the intake of Asian vegetables (ulam): “Working memory and cognitive flexibility are supported by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)….”

And what it found was that “… high ulam consumption was related to a high intensity of brain activation in DLPFC; however, the elucidation of the neuroprotective properties of ulam have yet to be established from clinical trial studies.”  So whether ulam is “good” or “bad” is still open for additional research.

Having said that, however, we can now flip into Wikipedia and look up “ulam” which is found to be…

Ulam, a traditional salad produced from the fresh leaves, vegetables or fruits which can be eaten raw or after soaked in hot water eg Centella asiatica. It is typically eaten with sauces such as anchovies, cincalok or sambal. It is recognised as a popular vegetable dish in traditional villages.[citation needed]

Ulam can be eaten simply as it is such as cucumber, cabbage and longbean. Another type of ulam is traditional ulam, in which it is used more as an ingredient, such as in nasi ulam (ulam rice),[1] nasi kerabu (a type of bluish-coloured rice) and cooking with other vegetables. It also has its uses in Ayurvedic and traditional medicine, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.”

Does this give us any hints?  Cucumber, cabbage, and beans?

All of which range a bell:  Cabbage – like raw potatoes, my late grandmother who cooked in Odense, Denmark, for a minor noble, was absolutely resolute in her demand that we “eat our cabbage.”  Something there?

Well, here’s a site offering some actual data:

“China accounts for 32,800,000 tons of cabbage produced in the world.”  Japan and India are up there, too.

“Top cabbage producing nations in Europe are Russia (3,309,315 tons), Ukraine (1,922,400 tons), Poland (1,198,726 tons), and Romania (990,154 tons). The US accounts for 964,830 tons of the total world production. The US accounts for 964,830 tons of the total world production.”

“Oh, sure…whatever, Ure” you may be thinking, but let’s level the data field a bit, shall we?

  • Population of China:  1.38-BILLION people.
  • Population of Russia?  142-million *(CIA World Fact Book 2017)
  • Population Ukraine?  44-million (ibid on the cite)
  • Population of Poland?  38.5-million.
  • Population of Romania?  21.5 million.
  • Population of the USA? 323-million

Which we can use to ballpark estimated per capita consumption.

Our Big Think Conclusion

We never quite got around to answering the question of whether eating more Mexican food would help me pick up Spanish more easily.  But, based on the hints in the data, we do have a clever way to estimate national intelligence, engineering and math skills, and a personal regimen to both improve cerebral cortex function and visualization, which might even improve dreaming and fight mental decline while aging.  Because here’s the data:

The data points to an experiential correlation between cabbage consumption and intelligence.

Please carefully note which country is not only embroiled in pointless social media, but which also eats the least amount of cabbage.

Pass the taco, sauce, amigo?  Cabbage instead of lettuce, maybe?

46 thoughts on “The Sunday Think: Does Food Drive Language?”

  1. If eating cabbage produces geniuses, then how come American prisons aren’t brimming with Einsteins? High national cabbage consumption might also correlate with large numbers of very poor people living off grid in the countryside. OK. so I do like cole slaw. I’m not sure cabbage cultivation is sufficiently low intensity or critter resistant for my gardening methods, but maybe I should try it in the cooler months.

    • “…how come American prisons aren’t brimming with Einsteins?”

      Who says they aren’t? They say the successful criminals are the ones who don’t get caught. I agree there are many prisoners who aren’t too bright but I wonder if their destinies were based on genetics or lost opportunities?

      How many kids in the smaller high schools end up being farmers because their guidance counselor didn’t know how to help them aim for Ivy league schools and scholarships, etc.? How many kids in the mid-West and southern regions miss out on big league opportunities because they grow up in communities very far removed from the big leagues?

  2. That is why immigration of the best minds has been the US policy for years. The best & brightest want to be here and we welcome them. They come here legally & pay their own way. If we want to stay the #1 innovators, the crazies better wake up or there will be no money to pay for the freebies. Life is not fair, it requires effort & thought to succeed.

    When you are short on cash, do you walk over to your neighbor & ask him to feed you, give you a place to stay, & pay your bills?

    • If you live in Smalltown, Kansas, the answer is yes, or you speak to the pastor and he or she will try to help you.

      If you live in Bedroom Community, Washington D.C., the answer is no. Most neighbors don’t talk to each other and if they did, they learn everybody’s budgets are stretched thin with little room for charity.

  3. As BABA stock crashes in this China Trade War, will it be a great buy. When China allows investors to buy BABA on the open market, this huge demand could send BABA stock to Amazon levels. There is always an opportunity brewing.

  4. George

    “a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic potential.”

    When I was growing up the big push was to do Sports and it still is.

    If you were interested in academic pursuits you were considered weird.

    No wonder were lagging behind other countries in so many academic area’s as the money is spent on sports facilities.

    • I was raised to pursue academic excellence because it was the key to success. What I knew was more important than who I knew.


      Over the last 30 years, I learned that the key to success is being sociable and knowing the latest sports scores. It’s who you know, not what you know.

      I raised my son to be athletic and my wife took care of the social skills (its genetic). He’s doing very well.

      • I forgot to mention that I believe athleticism is important in the United States because we are obsessed as a culture with appearances. There aren’t many fat people doing commercials or holding leading roles in popular TV shows…

    • “a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic potential.”

      It is hard to believe.. I was an I am sociable but I am not a social person… a whole range of things happened that drove me into a secluded world as a child.. my mother she pushed things if you said someday I would like to do this or that.. she made you do it.. my parents were big readers as well.. and you never told mom.. I am bored.. .. the only escape for myself was through books because I was a little more eager to learn something I was made fun of so I dumbed myself down to fit in a piece of paper hanging on the wall was not going to happen because finances wouldn’t allow the opportunity to achieve a sheet of paper…. I was dyslexic and a teacher took me under her wing to teach me.. once I started I never quit I have read a book or two more than some… a friend of mine that I met in the LOC stacks.. is in her late eighties.. she still reads a book a day.. I have slowed down considerably.. Her passion.. gardening.. back in the day she made maple syrup.,. yumm..she to was an escapee from society.. and still is..
      what I lacked was the ability to take advantage of opportunities that came my way.. Or sometimes I was so busy in my world that I didn’t notice the opportunity till it was gone..

  5. “Testosterone in Males as Enhanced by Onion (Allium Cepa L.)..”

    if you ever freeze dry onions.. chop them don’t do slices.. the reason.. if you slice the onions you will eat one…
    after you are done.. then you will discover you just ate the equivelant to twenty pounds of onions in one sitting.. so don’t do it.. ever..

    geniuses in prison.. Really N_____

    Now.. my theory on IQ.. a High IQ doesn’t make you any different in any way than someone with a lower IQ. everyone is a genius in their own way and position in the community. Like I have read hundreds of books on plumbing yet I know that even though I have that knoweledge that I am not a plumber.. the same with hair cutting.. I have read hundred of books on cutting hair properly to obtain different styles.. well you definitely would rather have me attempt to be a plumber for you than your hair dresser.. LOL… through life experiences and the ability to take advantage of the opportunities that come your way.. ..the fact that you can see the patterns in abstracts means nothing. You will find that people of money and position’s children will reach higher pinnacles of position than someone from a blue collar family. the opportunities will be granted to them because of their parents..
    Some colleges your success depends on who you are rather than what you know or where you came from..

    • Also prisons.. laws are written to imprison the lower class’s than the upper classes.. look at the prison population.. look at the news stories.. one after another all around the country..

    • I love brassicas and consume a lot of them.. LOL.. but I am definitely no genius just someone that has bad gas from time to time LOL… don’t you just hate it when you pass a bubble and then someone comments on they wish they could go to a fast food restaurant LOL… or in the car a sneaky squeaks out then count the seconds before the shotgun driver rolls the window down so the vapors whip past their nostrils LOL LOL ( full shot) I call that shot gunning the bubble LOL LOL LOL just kidding there.. I would never do something like that..( as I sit here looking all innocent)

      if you notice most of the worlds wisest were adaptable

      • Speaks volumes of the assembled multitude here when I can read of farts and high IQs in a single post. It’s a humbling yet gratifying realization…

      • I would say that the difference between the inmates and the aspiring lawyers of the debate team was primarily experience, not intelligence. I haven’t run into a lot of Einstein class lawyers, but I have heard tell of lot of lawyers going to jail.

      • Thank you for this Sunday’s lesson from Pandora’s Box; we are incensed.

        According to Wikipedia, some may find cabbage and its neighbors off-putting because of the presence of phenylthiocarbamide or PTC for the tongue twisted. The 1995 work by Theresa Overfield notes that the negative taste response in some populations to PTC may be a natural defense to low iodine availability. Interestingly, according to the 2007 WHO report on 1993-2006 global data, Ukraine is one of the few nations with an optimal iodine nutrition level. Apparently iodine is the heaviest element in common with all forms of life.

        Take me to your leader?

        • Your leader (ahem…) takes a low dose of Potassium (99 mg) twice a day because it comes with two doses of iodine and that really rocks.
          this whole “sea salt” plague is just making the gullible more dense since iodine and thyroid function and intimately…but ask your doctor!

      • Yes.. People put to much importance with an IQ number.
        I once had a gentleman look at me puzzled as I fumbled over a project.. his comment was.. Its a rectangle.. almost everything is one of a very few shapes..
        He was right.. an iq is nothing more than someone that can see the rectangle..
        the ones that make a difference are the ones that question.. is it possible.. what if..
        I was having a few adult beverages with a NASA engineer once.. we were talking about an important component to a piece of equipment .. when he said.. how we got the idea for it was a bunch of us were drunk on a camping trip when we realized that the answer was in the workings of a piece of female anatomy.. needless to say.. it went to the moon..

        The big thing is those that are considered great.. Questioned things.. not ready to accept the information that was accepted as fact..

        Gahata once wrote..The laws of physics are merely a suggestion.for we are humans,its our destiny to breach the barriers that nature has set for us.

      • George, & Jester on the Scent – iodine supplementation and real unprocessed salt are both valuable as supplements. Increased IQ is one benefit. Iodines receptors are taken over by the bromides and fluorides we consume, both of which are toxic. BTW iodine in salt evaporates so it is not a reliable source of iodine. Best book about this is “The Iodine Crises”by Lynne Farrow.

    • Hear, hear! Legacy selections and arranged marriages. Reminds of the silver spoon condition applied to the success rule — success is measured from where your started, not where you ended up. When applied, there are very few very successful people in our society today.

      Who is more successful, the $50K per year family downstairs living frugally and living out their old age with a $1M saved dollars, or the $10M inheritance boy handed a $200K job out of college by mom’s associate?

      Yeah, I’m cynical. But tell me I’m wrong…

  6. Dude! We are sooo synched its crazy. I have an ongoing dialog with a Lithuanian Princess that lives in London. She is off the chart gifted and taught me much. Just yesterday were were talking about, ‘Biocinessis’. And discussing Lucid Dreaming and altering your DNA through dream work/meditation work.

    I had never heard of Biocinessis, till yesterday. :)

  7. Intelligence and IQ are related to the amount of Glial connective cells in the brain, (Einstein had a lot of them in his brain, it was found) as well as the structure of the brain. Left-handed people (me) have a larger bundle of nerves for ‘inter-cortical communication’ between the two halves of the brain. The result is we are better able to translate the ‘dreaming’ half into the physical ‘action’ half of the brain. Lefties are all somewhat dyslexic, also. Severely dyslexic people are really smart, but just have trouble controlling the symmetry thing without practice.

    Not to be racist, but some elitists have found that people who are half caucasion and half asian tend to rise to the top of the ‘intelligence’ scales. Living in Hawaii, I have a number of friends who are “Hapa” Asian/caucasian and they are all exceptionally intelligent and ‘achievers’ in life.

    Personally, I am half German-American and half French-Canadian with a few percent native american which, genetically, is Asian. I was lazy in school. I have an excellent memory that got me thru the testing, but I loathe the homework. My advisor once asked me why I didn’t do better in school. He thought I should be a straight-A student. Towards the end of my schooling I learned I had a near photographic memory with some practice. Never knew my ‘official’ IQ (they thought it harmful to disclose this to students} Self-testing later in life gave me a 145 IQ on a test that I was distracted from, and could have done better. The real clue was when I maxed and perfected my Army entrance aptitude exams… which are designed to not be completed, normally. They told me only two or three individuals per year in the upper midwest five-state area ever perfected these exams. I qualified for MENSA with that exam, but never joined.

    So I believe, based on personal experience, that genetics and brain formation are the largest factor for intelligence. Nutritional support is also important for growing that potential.

    • Didn’t realize we could be brothers, Hank. 6-8th grades I scored 138-144 on the IQ test batteries and hated the problem that resulted:” Into the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG) guinea pig trials and from there was in and out of accelerated math classes.
      BUT I hated it and graduated with a 2.7 – also having that nearly pefect memory, so I spent a sum-total of zero time studying that which didn’t interest me.
      Electronics did, however. And by age 16, had my First-Class commercial radtiotelephone ticket from the FCC – which is like the modern GROL license with an additional helping of television technique and AM directional antenna theory like how to line up a phssed array and all that (Hank also has this skillset!)
      Point is – I daresay for both of us – there was something semi-magical about how our brains were almost purpose-built for electronics.
      You see, with questions like a schematic with three circuit diagrams (“Which of these designs is a Hartley Oscillator? Which one is a Colpitts? and so forth) we not only could do all the math (one over two pi root LC) but in addition had to develop the internal “artboard” skills.

      Worked a bit this weekend on my next book – Super-IQ: Owning the Ambients” and a lot of hints and tricks on brain-fertilization are in there.

      But there’s nothing like the right connective tissue and the right understand of the critical questions in Life.

      One of my odd personal findings? Eating pork raises serum uric acid levels. So, when I run into a “religion” that mandates “Don’t Eat Pork!” I sit back and review the possible motivations:

      Is it because the religion is setting out rules for a time of no air conditioning?
      A time when trichinosis was widespread?
      Is pork related genetically to the off-planet folks who planet Earth?
      OR – by banning foods that raise serum uric acid levels, are “people in charge” trying to keep people “following” their rules?
      Answer to that and more in the book.
      Now, just have to find time to write it…
      Thanks Hank for the poke and ‘git-along’

      • I too had a phenomenal memory, never had to study and made almost straight A,s. could not understand algebra. I too fell in love with electronics and worked in electrical jobs my whole adult life. But I really do not like cabbage. So what does that lead to?

      • Yeah, I was put into the ‘accelerated’ math classes in high school also… and hated it also. But the school ran out of things to teach us in our senior year, so we slacked off. Freshman college was brutal as I was again dumped into the accelerated class. With no foundations in calculus, we were supposed to learn how Newton DERIVED Calculus with all the proofs. That was when I got my First Class FCC license and dropped out of college!

        I never joined MENSA because I didn’t want to be a ‘registered brainiac’ known to all… and all the problems that would bring. I chose to remain incognito and use my skills for my own benefit. Intelligent creativity was a huge asset to a lifelong broadcast engineer. I was known for pulling off ‘miracles’ regularly for my employers. Yeah, we could be brothers of different mothers.

      • …and my AM Directional Antenna skills were learned in Wisconsin winters at -20F. below zero, tramping through fields of snow with a field strength meter. Is it any wonder I moved to Hawaii at the first opportunity?

        • LOL Mine were learned driving around the east side of Seattle (Kirkland, Woodinville, bothell area) with Quincy Jones late brother in a great big Chrysler station wagon. He called it “The Green Monster” and it was HUGE.
          Ah the joys of a Nems-Clarke field strength monitor in the rain…

  8. “a child must be provided with an optimal environment to be able to develop to his/her full genetic potential.”

    Then explain Thomas Sowell, Walter E Williams, and Ben Carson. The two former, growing up in Harlem during the Depression and the Philadelphia “Projects,” respectively, and the latter, mostly in the Rouge River area of south Detroit…

    Note that Russia, Ukraine, Poland, and Romania produce far more wheat than they do cabbage (think Triticum and Durum), and have done so for ~7000 years. What they haven’t grown is GM crap or the more-wierdassed wheat hybrids.

  9. Odense. My goodness. Our ancestors might have rubbed elbows. My Danish gr-grandfather was one of the king’s guards before the family immigrated here to the States. Mother said once upon a time she could still remember his bearskin headgear stored in her grandparents’ attic.
    Still have distant cousins in Odense. A number of years back I met elderson there when he got off his seismic boat hitch in the North Sea. Spent almost a week in Denmark. Wonderful people. Wonderful place. Felt like home.
    The drop dead gorgeous young women could look my 6’3″ son in the eyes barefooted. And OMG! the men!
    Better close here and tend to business. ;-)

  10. Oh, almost forgot–knew there was something else. Coincidentally found this yesterday.
    On the subject of food determining one’s physicality: this July/August issue of Archaeology has an article that might be of interest.
    In the ‘From the Trenches’ section is “You Say What You Eat”. Page 9. How changes in diet seems to have determined mandible changes which in turn affected speech.

    Back to business

  11. I’m not convinced that IQ tests are adequate indicators of intelligence. They test only the left-brain type of intelligence and totally ignore right-brain intelligence. I’m not complaining, because I’m a left-brainer and excel in those tests, but I have a daughter who is almost totally right-brained and she “knows” things instantly that it would take others much longer to learn.I believe that those who intuit things are at least as intelligent as those who learn in a more plodding manner. Knowledge seeps into them instantaneously, bypassing the need for the logical processes of those who are deemed more intelligent. Intuition is FAST; logic is SLOW. So who is actually more intelligent–the one who automatically “knows” or the one who works at it?

  12. If you want to know the effect of the education system on kids, read about Sudbury schools. The kids study what they want and vote on their teachers. They are all geniuses in what interests them when taught by teachers that care about them. I met one Sudbury kid that learned to read because his friends were, then lost interest and two years later had to learn again. 90% of dyslexia is caused by teaching kids to read at too early an age.

    Instead of looking at things like cabbage, look at sugar consumption. And for all you folks in the USA, more than 80% of your wheat and oats are sprayed with glyphosate before harvest. Its even showing up in the beer. So agri chemicals are a factor. Americans, you live in a sea of chemical contamination, no matter where you live or what you eat or breathe OR TOUCH.

    In Ecuador, those chemicals simply are not affordable to folks living on a second world income, so we see very few of them. But we do spray all the bananas we export because you expect that, but bananas we eat here comes from some local source where they literally grow wild. Chemical cost is a factor in why I get 4 avocados for a buck from my neighbor, and you pay 4 bucks for an organic avocado. Dairy is unprocessed and grass fed, a liter of local yogurt is $1.75, and all beef is grass fed as well. If produce does not have a bug damage, or there are not actually insects or a worm or two found when we wash it, we do not consider it truly organic.

    The USA animal protein supplies are all awash in antibiotics, and nobody will admit what this does to people. If you boil water in a microwave and then water your plants with it, you will kill them.

    My wife runs an allergy elimination clinic (NAET) and she finds a great deal of celiac and allergies are not caused by the food itself, it is something done to the food or chemicals “normally” used in its production. When she tests with organic foods like wheat she gets radically different results with muscle testing, and the body does not lie.

    You see, in the USA, the culture does not look for causes, it looks for ways to alleviate symptoms like low IQ. Just ask any cancer doctor why his patients get cancer and you will get that deer in the headlights look, even if he knows he cannot say. If you do not eliminate that which gave you cancer or any other chronic medical condition it is insanity to believe the condition will not return.

    And then there is the medical establishment itself. Life Extension Foundation when first started found the first step in extending their members lives was to keep them out of the hands of the medical community so it didn’t kill them.

    Leading causes of death in the USA, cancer, heart disease, and medical treatment. You pick the order, but a 1998 study put medical treatment first, then laws were passed that made it impossible to collect the statistics necessary to show this.

    • EE: Preaching to the choir, you didn’t add one thing we didn’t already know. Many of us have already found a work around, within the USA, years ago and are still here to tell the truth.

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